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bees

Bees

This nOde last updated April 8th, 2008 and is permanently morphing...
(2 Ik (Wind) / 5 Pohp (Mat) - 2/260 - 12.19.15.4.2)

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bee (bê) noun
1. a. Any of several winged, hairy-bodied, usually stinging insects of the superfamily Apoidea in the order Hymenoptera, including both solitary and social species and characterized by sucking and chewing mouthparts for gathering nectar and pollen. b. A bumblebee. c. A honeybee.
2. A social gathering where people combine work, competition, and amusement: a quilting bee.

- idiom.
a bee in (one's) bonnet
An impulsive, often eccentric turn of mind; a notion.
[Middle English, from Old English bêo. Sense 2 perhaps also alteration of dialectal bean, voluntary help given to a farmer by his neighbors, from Middle English bene, extra service by a tenant to his lord, from Old English bên, prayer.]

bee

bee (bê), flying INSECT of the superfamily Apoidae, having enlarged hind feet for pollen gathering and a dense coat of feathery hairs on the head and thorax. Bees feed on POLLEN and nectar; the latter is converted to HONEY in the digestive tract. Most have stings connected to a poison gland. Bees may be social, solitary, or parasitic in the nests of other bees. Social bees include bumblebees, stingless bees, and honeybees. A typical colony of social bees has an egg-laying queen, sexually undeveloped females (workers), and fertile males (drones). Workers gather nectar, make and store honey, and protect the hive. They care for the queen and larvae and perform complex patterned dances to communicate the location of pollen sources to one another. After being fertilized by a drone, the queen spends her life (usually several years) laying eggs. Honeybees are raised commercially for honey and for the WAX they produce for their nests (combs) and as agricultural cross-pollinators. So-called "killer bees" are essentially African honeybees that are much more aggressive than common honeybees when disturbed. They were introduced into the New World in Brazil during the mid-1950s and have since spread north to the U.S.


 
 
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As they fly from flower to flower, field bees place pollen directly in the cells of developing larvae when they return to the hive where they also regurgitate nectar for its conversion into honey. The perfection and orderly development of a community of bees provides a fascinating study in social organization.


A well-perfected system of communication exists among the honeybees. In studies of bees begun in the early 1900s, the Austrian zoologist external linkKarl von Frisch determined many of the details of their means of communication. In a  paper published in 1923, von Frisch described how after a field bee discovers a new source of food, such as a field in bloom, she fills her honey sac with nectar, returns to the hive, and performs a vigorous but highly standardized internal linkdance.

Converge-Agoraphobic Nosebleed split on Relapse (1999)

During this ceremony the other workers scent the fragrance of the flowers from which the dancer collected the nectar. Having learned that food is not far from the hive, and what it smells like, the other bees leave the hive and fly in widening circles until they find the source.

Numerous bees in the hive closely follow the dancer, imitating her movements.

Honey is mentioned in the Talmud and the Bible, as well as in the records of ancient China, Greece, and Rome. Bee carvings have been found on the temple walls of ancient internal linkEgyptians. Indeed, references to honey and its healing powers are found in ancient papyri dating back to 5000 BC. Bee pollen then and now is described by some as "a life-giving dust".

Although the bee has not been deified by the ancient Egyptians, it was worshipped as a source of eternal life. The tomb of the ancient Egyptian king Ramses III (1198-1167 BC) has bee designs in it. In most Egyptian funeral vaults, bees are shown in all phases of honey gathering.

Hindu writings dating back from around 1500 BC also contain references to pollen and honey, as Hindus believed that eating these substances would enable them to maintain good health in both body and mind. In fact, Krishna, the Hindu deity, has been depicted as a bee..... Ancient Roman records also talk about the benefit of honey. Welsh and internal linkCeltic folklore has abundant references to the sweet substance. At one point in their history, the Welsh paid their taxes in measures of honey.

Hippocrates, considered the father of medicine, wrote, "Honey and pollen cause warmth, clean sores and ulcers, soften hard ulcers of lips, heal carbuncles and running sores."



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"...the Great Mother was known as the Queen Bee and her priestesses were Melissae, the Bees. Pindar says that the Pythian priestess at internal linkDelphi was known as the Delphic Bee, and her emblematic bee appeared on Delphic coins. The officiates at internal linkEleusis were Bees.

The name internal linkMelissa is an ancient title referring to a priestess of the Great Mother or to a nymph (the full-grown larva of bees are called nymphs)...

The Cretan Zeus was born in a cave of bees and was fed by them, and Zeus also had the title of Melissaios, Bee-man; he fathered a son, the hero Meliteus, by a nymph who hid the child from Hera in a wood, where Zeus had him fed by bees. Dionyous was fed on honey as a babe by the nymph Makris, daughter of Aristaeus, protector of flocks and bees.

As emblems of the goddesses Demeter, Cybele, Diana, Rhea and the Ephesian Artemis, bees are lunar and virgin. The bee appears on statues of Artemis and some of her priests were called internal linkEssenes - King Bees - Pausanias says that the word 'Essene' means King Bee. With the Essenes, 'King Bees' were priestly officials.
Christ was called the 'internal linkaetherial bee'.(by the Church)

  - _Dictionary of Symbolic & Mythological Animals_, Cooper



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Sent from: Tiffany Lee Brown  <magdalen@well.com>
[ mod's note: amazingly reminiscent of the movie by David Blair?]
 The short version: Researchers at the far extremes of where advanced  mathematics intersects internal linkquantum mechanics found they've been impossibly  trumped by dancing honeybees.
 [From external linkwww.npr.org :]
 [8.] [QUANTUM BEES] -- Robert talks to mathematician external linkBarbara Shipman about  her cross-disciplinary discovery. In mapping a six-dimensional figure onto  two-dimensions, she recognized the pattern as that of the honeybee's ritual  dance. To her, this implies that bees can sense the quantum world, since it  is in that realm that six-dimensional geometry has real meaning. The bees use the dance to communicate to others in the hive the location and distance of a pollen source:

the dance that honey bees do to tell their hivemates where they have found a good food source. The bees change the form of the internal linkdance acording to the location of the flowers that constitute the source. The surprising thing is that there may be a deep mathematical reason for how the dance changes form. The reason is related to a space in symplectic geometry known as a "flag manifold." Although no one is suggesting that honey bees understand flag manifolds, it is possible that the instincts which control their behavior are internal linkwired in such a way that the principles of this kind of geometry apply.



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Dancing for Your Dinner: How honeybees communicate nectar sites to their fellows Who dances? Who watches?
Scout bees (workers) find food sources.

Role of worker bee changes over its 6 month lifetime.

Elements of the dance
Direction of center line in figure-internal link8 dance in relation to the vertical corresponds to      direction of food source in relation to the internal linksun. (3 internal linklight sentitve spots on head)  vibrating of abdomen (wings?) during walk through center line corresponds to flying time.   Scout bee offers others regurgitated nectar, identifying nature of the food source.
Round Dance Waggle Dance

How it was researched

     Numbering of bees in hive.
     Observing which bees find provided food source.
     Observing which bees dance/which bees watch.
     Observing which bees subsequently fly to the. provided food source.

Other Points

     Dance-like activity one might see in a hive that is not this dance
     Some scientists say this research was faulty: Maybe we don't really understand the dance.

We all know that the waggle dance is the name given to one of the most important parts of the honey bee dance internal linklanguage (taken from von Frisch's term 'tail-wagging dance'), but did you know it's also the name of a beer made with honey in addition to barley malt?  (I assume the name comes from the honey connection, and not only from the behavior of heavy consumers).

This honey bee uses 500 kg of honey in every 100-barrel batch, so it's definitely not a token effort.  The resulting brew is (I'm told) golden in color, with a notably firm and smooth body, a touch of sweetness with suggestions of orange and lemon, and a flowery dryness in its long finish.  It has 5 percent alcohol and is a cask-conditioned draught.

Waggle Dance is available in around 200 pubs, mainly those owned by the brewers Vaux in the north of England, at around 1.45-1.65 pounds per pint (an ancient British measurement, still used by drinkers, of just
over 0.5 litre).



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Date:         Tue, 9 Jul 1996 15:18:08 -0800
Reply-To:     Discussion of Bee Biology <BEE-L@CNSIBM.ALBANY.EDU>
Sender:       Discussion of Bee Biology <BEE-L@CNSIBM.ALBANY.EDU>
From:         Adrian Wenner <wenner@lifesci.ucsb.edu>
Subject:      Bee dance reply - I

We have once again had a flurry of exchange on the honey bee internal linklanguage controversy --- the fourth time in a little more than a year on various internal linknetworks (this internal linktime primarily on the SOCINSCT network).  Not much new seems to have emerged, particularly since bee language proponents have yet to address fully the list of 16 problems with the dance language hypothesis that I posted on the Internet last January.

Some points, though, beg for further comment.  However, Bruno Latour's 1987 comment (as quoted in the book, ANATOMY OF A CONTROVERSY...) applies here:     "We have to understand first how many elements can be brought to bear on a controversy; once this is understood, the other problems will be easier to solve."

Rather than attempt to reply to the several points raised in one lengthy message, I will post sequentially a few relatively short comments about each point raised in the last few weeks.
 

********  FIRST COMMENT (Just what is the bee language hypothesis?):

We once had a concise statement of the language hypothesis, but too much evidence is now at variance with that original hypothesis (as outlined in the 16 points posted in January).  Some individuals still have a deep attachment to the idea of a "language" use by honey bees but seem to no longer embrace any concise scientific statement of that hypothesis.    Under the circumstances, Julian O'Dea's alternative ("idiothetic/mnemonic") hypothesis seems as likely as the dance language hypothesis as an explanation for the teleological question, "Why do bees dance?"  (He asked:  "But why has so little attention been paid to the possibility that the bees do the dances [in order to memorize] the location of resources?")

Deep conviction to a hypothesis may reflect an unconscious commitment to a status quo attitude of the scientific community; however, as one scientist wrote (paraphrased):  The strength of a conviction has no bearing on whether a scientific hypothesis is true or not.   (In that connection, witness what happened with the "cold internal linkfusion" episode).

Enlightment on that point may be found in one section of an excellent book, as follows:  Fleck, Ludwik.  1935.  Pp. 20-51 in GENESIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A SCIENTIFIC FACT.   Univ. of Chicago Press.  (translated
into English and republished in 1979.  [To order (only about US$12):
1-(800) 621-2736 --- ISBN:  0-226-25325-2]

Look for the SECOND COMMENT that follows shortly (why "compromise" has little place in science).

                                                                        Adrian

Adrian M. Wenner                         (805) 893-2838 (UCSB office)
Ecol., Evol., & Marine Biology           (805) 893-8062  (UCSB FAX)
Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara           (805) 963-8508 (home office & FAX)
Santa Barbara, CA  93106



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Date:         Tue, 9 Jul 1996 19:52:27 -0800
Reply-To:     Discussion of Bee Biology <BEE-L@CNSIBM.ALBANY.EDU>
Sender:       Discussion of Bee Biology <BEE-L@CNSIBM.ALBANY.EDU>
From:         Adrian Wenner <wenner@lifesci.ucsb.edu>
Subject:      Bee dance reply - II

On the question of bee "language":

******** SECOND COMMENT ("Compromise" does not lead to progress in science)

In this recent interchange we were once again asked to believe:  "1) sometimes the bees do dances, and their nestmates use the internal linkinformation in these dances to influence where they themselves seek forage, and 2) [at] other times the bees still do the dances but their nestmates make little or no use of the dance information [as to] where they end up foraging."    That position seems to serve as a "security blanket" of sorts.  If I do an experiment with only single controls (as von Frisch, Gould, and other language proponents have done) I can get results supportive of the language hypothesis --- that is, condition #1 (above) prevails.  However, if I do strong inference or double controlled experiments (as Wenner and co-workers did) and obtain evidence not in agreement with the language hypothesis (whatever that might be now), then condition #2 (above) prevails.  We thus have a peculiar circumstance --- any set of results is acceptable, and we need not concern ourselves with hypothesis testing.
Information in formation DNA

However, where would we be today if geneticists in the 1940s and 1950s had compromised, as follows:  "sometimes internal linkDNA carries the genetic information and sometimes protein carries that information."   (Would we
have "genetic engineering" today?)  Or, what if Pasteur and fellow scientists had compromised:  "sometimes life arises by spontaneous generation and sometimes life can only come from life."   (Would we have pasteurized milk today?)

I suggest that bee language proponents now get together and agree upon a concise scientific statement of the hypothesis they believe in, one that can be tested experimentally.  (Language proponents now seem to agree that
the conclusions of von Frisch were not justified on the basis of the evidence he had gathered.)

On this point I am reminded of a recent statement by Harold B. Hopfenberg (1996.  "Why wars are lost."  AMERICAN SCIENTIST.  84:102-104):

"The biased hypothesis...provides valuable scaffolding for sincere inquiry as long as the methodology and subsequent interpretation of data do not result in the confusion of hypothesis with conclusion."

Look for the THIRD COMMENT  that follows shortly (Why scientists necessarily rely more on experimental results than on "consensus").
                                                      Adrian



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ultraviolet bee Out of Control by Kevin Kelly
Tell The Bees... belief, knowledge, and hypersymbolic cognition... The Museum Of Jurassic Technology The Olivia Tremor Control - Black Foliage: Animation Music on Flydaddy (1999)

Coil

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Notes:
        The second in a series of limited edition Equinox/Solstice
        releases, issued on Summer Solstice, 1998.

        The 7" is limited to 1300 copies on "honey" yellow vinyl and 50
        copies on internal linkgreen vinyl signed by John, Peter, Drew and Bill Breeze.

        The CDEP was deleted on Autumnal Equinox when the third part of
        the series was released.

        Vinyl etching:
        Side A - HONEY FROM THE HORNET'S NEST
        Side B - FOR HARRY CROSBY AND HARRY SMITH



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Melt Banana - Teeny Shiny on A-Zap (2000) TRS-80 - Backup: 01 on Invisible (2001)
Hallucinogen In Dub on Twisted (2002) Company Flow - Little Johnny From The Hospital: Breaks & Instrumentals Vol. 1 on (1999)
Pitchfork - Eucalyptus 12inch on Nemesis (1990) Secret Chiefs 3 - First Grand Constitution & Bylaws on Amarillo-Mimicry (1996-2000)
Jad Fair & Yo La Tengo - Strange But True on Matador (1998) Ugly Casanova - Sharpen Your Teeth on Sub Pop (2002)
Captain Beefheart and The Magic Band - Trout Mask Replica 12inch x2 (1969) Oxes/Arab On Radar split 10inch


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