last updated January 15th, 2008 and is permanently morphing...
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Least Significant Digit.
A crystalline compound, C20H25N3O, derived from lysergic acid and used as a powerful Hallucinogenic drug. Also called acid, lysergic acid diethylamide.
[L(Y)S(ERGIC ACID) D(IETHYLAMIDE).]
On April 19, 1943, Dr. Albert Hofmann dosed himself with 0.25 mg of d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate, which he had accidentally ingested a few days earlier, and took his storied bike ride through the streets of Basel, Switzerland. A generation later the substance, abbreviated as LSD, fueled a cultural revolution despite criminalization in 1965. (LSD's social history can be read in Jay Stevens's 1987 _Storming Heaven_.) The most potent of all psychedelics, LSD is usually ingested orally on blotter paper frequently festooned with cultural icons. (Examples from recent LSD resurgences include Bart Simpson and Beavis and Butt-head.) While the typical late-'60s tripper probably took around 250 mg of acid, the average strength of the hits sold in recent years, known to old-timers as "disco doses," is less than half that. LSD embodies a potentially infinite array of effects, ranging from mild sensory distortions to peak religious experiences. It is essentially a boundary-dissolving, experience-enhancing substance-as with most psychedelics, the effects are tied to the mind-set of the user and the setting in which it is ingested.
the CIA had an extensive role in spreading LSD throughout the world. not in the promotion of dissolving boundaries, but for studying it as a possible tool for mind control. the mind expansion of the sixties was helped greatly by the CIA.
LSD generates a wide variety of effects, the intensity of which are related to the size of the dose ingested, the mental state of the user, and the setting in which it is used. Although the minimum dose required to induce effects is considered to be 25 micrograms, a dose of as little as 10 micrograms can relax inhibitions and produce mild euphoria. As the dosage is increased, the effects become more pronounced and more prolonged.
LSD is absorbed easily from the gastrointestinal tract, and rapidly reaches a high concentration in the blood. It is circulated throughout the body and, subsequently, to the brain. LSD is metabolized in the liver and is excreted in the urine in about 24 hours.
Several factors provide LSD with a virtually inherent governor to its regular use, meaning that the drug will never become as frequently abused as other drugs, most notably, crack cocaine. First, the duration of the effects, which may persist for up to 12 hours or more, ensures that the user will not need to purchase the drug on a rapidly recurring basis. Second, tolerance to the drug develops rapidly if used daily, rendering its repeated ingestion useless, and cannot be overcome by ingestion of increased dosages. Third, the uncertain and mixed effects, especially adverse reactions, lead to erratic instances of LSD use. Finally, the extremely powerful and intense hallucinations often prompt users to abstain from LSD ingestion as they require periods of reorientation.
LSD use can produce a number of physical changes: mydriasis (prolonged dilation of the pupil of the eye), raised body temperature, rapid heartbeat, elevated blood pressure, increased blood sugar, salivation, tingling in fingers and toes, weakness, tremors, palpitations, facial flushing, chills, gooseflesh, profuse perspiration, nausea, dizziness, inappropriate speech, blurred vision, and intense anxiety. Death caused by the direct effect of LSD on the body is virtually impossible. However, death related to LSD abuse has occurred as a result of the panic reactions, hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia experienced by users.
LSD distorts electrical messages sent to and from various parts of the brain, primarily those pertaining to visual information. Messages from any of the senses can be perceived as merged together, creating a sensation known as “synesthesia.” This most commonly is represented as “hearing colors” or “seeing sounds.”
LSD also affects moods and emotions and suppressesmemory centers and other higher cerebral functions, such as judgment, reason, behavior control, and self-awareness. The combination and intensity of these factors create the profound mental effects most closely associated with LSD.
LSD is classified as a Schedule I drug in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. As a Schedule I drug, LSD meets the following three criteria: it is deemed to have a high potential for abuse; it has no legitimate medical use in treatment; and, there is a lack of accepted safety for its use under medical supervision. (*note: this is offical description only, as I personally disagree with #2)
In psychiatry, the use of LSD by students was an accepted practice; it was viewed as a teaching tool in an attempt to understand schizophrenia. From the late 1940’s through the mid-1970’s, extensive research and testing were conducted on LSD. During a 15-year period beginning in 1950, research on LSD and other hallucinogens generated over 1,000 scientific papers, several dozen books, and 6 international conferences, and LSD was prescribed as treatment to over 40,000 patients.
By 1965, researchers had published more than 2,000 papers describing the treatment of 30,000 to 40,000 patients with psychedelic drugs, including mescaline and psilocybin, but mostly with LSD. Among the more stunning results were studies in which LSD was given in high doses to children suffering from schizophrenia and autism. One such study reported that for a group of young autistic children with speech difficulties, "the vocabularies of severalof the children increased after LSD." What's more, "several seemed to be attempting to form words or watched adults carefully as theyspoke; many seemed to comprehend speech for the first time." The autistic children all "appeared flushed, bright-eyed and unusually interested in the environment."
Even more dramatic were the successes during the 1950s and 1960s in treating chronic alcoholics at Hollywood Hospital in British Columbia and at Spring Grove State Hospital in Baltimore. After ingesting relatively large doses of LSD (up to 800 micrograms, in some cases) and undergoing directed therapy, about half of all patients "were able to remain sober or to drink much less," according to pioneers Bernard Aaronson and Humphrey Osmond (who coined the word psychedelic") in their book Psychedelics (1970). Often after only one dose patients remained totally abstinent. "This seems to be a universal statistic for LSD therapy," they reported.
Exactly how LSD worked for alcoholics, heroin addicts and schizophrenic children remains something of a mystery. One school of thought advanced the theory that a "peak" LSD experience can be as nerve-rattling as a case of the delerium tremens, which many reformed alcoholics cite as the nadir before they decided to stop boozing. Others noted that patients weren't likely to experience a dramatic recovery unless the LSD experience was guided by a skilled therapist.
In fact, to this day scientists know little about how LSD interacts with the human brain on a neurological level. The ban on human research with LSD is partly to blame. But beyond that, LSD operates in mysterious ways. The drug remains in the brain for a relatively short period, isappearing at about the time the mental light show begins. This short half-life of the drug suggests that the hours ofhallucinations and consciousness-warping experienced by acid eaters is due not to the drug itself, but to some little-understood neurochemical chain of events unleashed by LSD.
- John Whalen - Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies
Marge: "The only thing I'm
high on is love...love for my son and daughters. Yes, a little LSD
is all I need."
from _Home Sweet Home-Diddily-Dum-Doodily_ [Aired October 1, 1995] Season 7/Episode 1
Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies