This nOde last updated December 12th, 2002 and is permanently morphing...
(8 Et'znab (Flint) / 11 Mak - 138/260 - 188.8.131.52.18)
In antiquity there was only
silence. In the nineteenth century, with the invention of the machine,
Noise was born. Today, Noise triumphs and reigns supreme over the sensibility
Luigi Russolo (1885-1947), Italian painter, Futurist. "The Art of Noise," in Futurist Manifesto (Milan, 1913; repr. in Michael Kirby, Futurist Performance, 1971).
It is 1916. Anarchists Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco & Richard Hue- lsenbeck are founding the Dada artistic movement after their first meeting at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. The movement doesn`t advocate any ideology whatsoever, but the "essence of spirit", freedom of expression, an open antagonism to the World War, the conservatism of the middle class & moral de- gradation of humankind. The Dada advocate a transfer of ideas via sound rather than via words, considering it more liberal & sincere. their artistic oeuvre comprises a mixture of languages, which helps destroy the ethnic & social barriers. As standard means of their rebellion, the Dada create music based on newly-formed industrial noises. Compositions by Kurt Schwitters, such as `An- na Blume` (1919) & `Ursonate` (1923) seem to have formed a basis for the de- velopment of abstract music in the 20th century.
Dada's main inspiration, though, seems to have been Luigi Russolo, an Italian Futurist artist & composer who has designed a series of noise-producing machines i.e. The Noise Intoners (`Intonarumori`) in 1912, instruments which have been highly used even by some famous composers like Stravinski, and which used to depict sounds from nature on various frequencies.
Along with the Dada, the
'godfather of abstract art' - Russian artist Vassiliy
Kandinski experiments in trying to define various shades of color by