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Underground Rules

Tunnels

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tunnel

tunnel (tùn´el) noun
1. An underground or underwater passage.
2. A passage through or under a barrier.
3. Obsolete. The main flue on a chimney.

verb
tunneled or tunnelled tunneling or tunnelling tunnels or tunnels verb, transitive
1. To make a tunnel through or under.
2. To produce, shape, or dig in the form of a tunnel.

verb, intransitive
To make a tunnel.
[Middle English tonel, tubular net, from Old French tonnelle, diminutive of tonne, tun, possibly of internal linkCeltic origin.]
- tun´neler or tun´neller noun

tunnel

tunnel, underground passage, approximately horizontal, usually made without removing the overlying rock or soil. Methods of tunneling vary with the nature of the material to be cut through. In soft earth, the excavation is timbered for support as the work advances, the timbers sometimes being left as a permanent lining for the tunnel. Often two parallel excavations that will hold the side walls are constructed first, and arches connecting them are built as the material between them is extracted. Rock tunneling is accomplished with explosives and high-speed drilling machinery. Underwater tunneling through mud, quicksand, or permeable earth requires the use of a shield (devised and first used in 1825), a steel cylinder closed at its forward end, which holds rotating cutting blades. The cutting end is pushed ahead by hydraulic jacks, and excavated material is removed through openings in the shield face. River-crossing tunnels are also constructed by dredging a trench in the riverbed; then lowering prefabricated tunnel sections through the water into the trench, where divers connect them; and, finally, covering the trench and tunnel.



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internal link604 label Tunnel

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Disneyland underground tunnel map


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Atari
Screenshot


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The World's Longest Railway Tunnels



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Tunnel Boring Machines

Ever wonder how tunnels are made?  By machines such as these:

TBM TBM



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Merzbow & Christoph Heemann - Sleeper Awakes On The Edge Of The Abyss I Am The World Trade Center - Out Of The Loop
Third Eye Foundation - You Guys Kill Me on Merge (1998) Coil - Constant Shallowness Leads To Evil on Esktaon (2000)
Red Snapper - Making Bones on Warp (1998)

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A tunnel is an underground passage through a mountain or under a internal linkwaterway, road or railroad.

It may be for pedestrians and/or cyclists, for general road traffic, for motor vehicles only, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Some tunnels are constructed purely for carrying water (for consumption, for hydroelectric purposes or as sewers); others carry other services such as telecommunications cables.

Various combinations are also possible.

The central part of a metro internal linknetwork is usually built in tunnels. To allow non-level crossings, some lines are in deeper tunnels than others. At metro stations there are often also pedestrian tunnels to walk from one platform to another.

At train stations of ground-level railways there are often one or more pedestrian tunnels under the railway to reach the platform(s).

A subway in the UK is a pedestrian tunnel that goes under a road.

The St. Gothard Tunnel opened in Switzerland on September 5, 1980 as the world's longest highway tunnel at 10.14 miles (16.32 km) stretching from Goschenen to Airolo.

Construction

Shallow tunnels are of the cut-and-cover type (if under water of the immersed-tube type), deep tunnels are excavated, often using a tunnelling shield. For intermediate levels, both methods are possible.

Cut-and-cover is a method of tunnel construction where a trench is excavated and roofed over. Strong supporting beams are necessary to avoid the danger of the tunnel collapsing.

Examples of tunnels

* The Lincoln Tunnel between New Jersey and New York is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world.
* The Sapperton Tunnel in the Thames & Severn Canal in England, dug through hills, which opened in 1789, was 3.5 km long and allowed ship transport of coal.
* The Box Tunnel in England, which opened in 1841, is one of the oldest railway tunnels in the world. It is dug and has a length of 2900 m.
* The Atlantic Avenue Tunnel, Brooklyn, New York is the world's oldest underground railway tunnel in a street, built in 1844 by the cut-and-cover method for the Long Island Rail Road. It is 800 m long.
* The Channel tunnel between England and France.


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pOrtal:
external linkTunnel - underground rules

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