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Babylon (bàb´e-len, -lòn´)
1. The capital of ancient Babylonia in Mesopotamia on the Euphrates River. Established as capital c. 1750 B.C. and rebuilt in regal splendor by Nebuchadnezzar II after its destruction (c. 689 B.C.) by the Assyrians, Babylon was the site of the Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
2. A community of southeast New York on the southwest coast of Long Island. It is mainly residential. Population, 12,388.
Babylon (bàb´e-len, -lòn´) noun
1. A city or place of great luxury, sensuality, and often vice and corruption.
2. A place of captivity or exile.
Babylon (n.) - corrupt society, government and institutions, as an oppressive force; the police, as agents of.
Babylon (ancient city)
Babylon (ancient city), major city of the ancient world, located 90 km (56 mi) south of present-day Baghdâd, Iraq. About 2200 BC Babylon was known as the site of a temple, and during the 21st century BC it was subject to the nearby city of Ur. Babylon became an independent city-state by 1894 BC, when the Amorite Sumu-abum founded a dynasty there. This dynasty reached its high point in the 18th century BC under Hammurabi. In 1595 BC the city was captured by Hittites, and it later came under the control of the Kassite dynasty (1590?-1155 BC). The Kassites expanded Babylon into the country of Babylonia and made the city the religious and administrative center of this kingdom.
From the late 8th century BC until Nabopolassar expelled the Assyrians, between 626 and 615 BC, the city was part of the Assyrian Empire. Nabopolassar founded the neo-Babylonian dynasty, and his son Nebuchadnezzar II expanded the kingdom. In 539 BC Cyrus the Great incorporated Babylonia into the newly founded Persian Empire. Alexander the Great captured the city in 330 BC. Later it was used as a capital by the Seleucid dynasty set up by Alexander's successors. In the early 3rd century BC most of Babylon's population was moved to a new capital, and the city almost disappeared before the coming of Islam in the 7th century AD.
Babylon is best known for Esagila, the temple of Marduk; Etemenanki, a seven-storied ziggurat; and the Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, which Nebuchadnezzar II built for his wife.
Babylonian Captivity or Babylonian Exile, term applied to the period between the deportation of the Jews from Palestine to Babylon, which took place in two parts, by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II and their release in 538 BC by the Persian king Cyrus the Great. The majority of Jews living in Babylon did not return to Palestine at the end of the exile period, but became a part of the Diaspora, or body of Jews dispersed among nations outside Palestine.
The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
These gardens were laid out on a brick terrace about 400 ft square and 75 ft above the ground. To irrigate the trees, shrubs, and flowers, screws were turned to lift water from the Euphrates R. The gardens were probably built by King Nebuchadnezzar II about 600 bc. The Walls of Babylon, long, thick, and made of colorfully glazed brick, were considered by some among the Seven Wonders.
Rastafarians in Jamaica, British West Indies, hail the new Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie (see 1930) as the living God, the fulfillment of a prophesy by Marcus M. Garvey who is said to have declared, "Look to Africa, where a black king shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is near". Members of the new sect will withdraw from Jamaican society, call white religion a rejection of black culture, insist that blacks must leave "Babylon" (the Western world) and return to Africa, and contribute to Jamaican culture (notably to the island's reggae music), but Rasta extremists will traffic in ganja (marijuana) and engage in acts of violence.
Medical research progresses at the Benedictine school associated with the monastery established at Monte Cassino in 529. Arabian, Jewish, and Greco-Roman medical works are translated into Latin by Constantine the African, a physician who has studied medicine and magic at Babylon and who is now disguised as a monk. His translations of Galen and Avicenna help to emancipate medicine from the religious bonds that have held it.
Political Events, 323 B.C.
Alexander the Great dies at Babylon at age 32, and a 42-year struggle begins that will be called the Wars of the Diadochi (successors). Alexander's generals, Antigonus, Antipater, Seleucus, Ptolemy, Eumenes, and Lysimachus, contest control of the Macedonian Empire.
Popular culture is the new
Babylon, into which so much art and intellect now flow.
It is our imperial sex theater, supreme temple of the western eye. We
live in the age of idols. The pagan past, never dead, flames again in
our mystic hierarchies of stardom.
Camille Paglia (b. 1947), U.S. author, critic, educator. Sexual Personae, ch. 4 (1990).
Environment, 597 B.C.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, with exotic shrubs and flowers irrigated by water pumped from the Euphrates.
Architecture, 597 B.C.
Babylon is a magnificent city of public buildings faced with blue, yellow, and white enameled tiles that face on broad avenues crossed by canals and winding streets.
Babylonian Cuneiform - "atomjack":
Gilgamesh (gîl´ge-mèsh´) noun
The semidivine king of Erech, a city of southern Babylonia, and hero of an epic collection of mythic tales, one of which tells of a flood that covered the earth.
BAFFLING BATTERIES OF BABYLON
In 1938, Dr. Wilhelm Kong, an Austrian archaeologist rummaging through the basement of the museum made a find that was to drastically alter all concepts of ancient science. A 6-inch-high pot of bright yellow clay dating back two millennia contained a cylinder of sheet-copper 5 inches by 1.5 inches. The edge of the copper cylinder was soldered with a 60-40 lead-tin alloy comparable to today's best solder. The bottom of the cylinder was capped with a crimped-in copper disk and sealed with bitumen or asphalt.
Another insulating layer of asphalt sealed the top and also held in place an iron rod suspended into the center of the copper cylinder.
The rod showed evidence of having been corroded with acid. With a background in mechanics, Dr. Konig recognized this configuration was not a chance arrangement, but that the clay pot was nothing less than an ancient electric battery.
The ancient battery in the Baghdad Museum as well as
those others which were unearthed in Iraq all date from the Parthian
Persian occupation between 248 B.C. and A.D. 226. However, Konig found
copper vases plated with silver in the Baghdad Museum excavated
from Sumerian remains in southern Iraq dating back
to at least 2500 B.C. When the vases were lightly tapped a blue patina
or film separated from the surfaces, characteristic of silver
electroplated to copper. It would appear then that the Persians
inherited their batteries from the earliest known
civilization in the Middle East.
"Babylon is a reality-tunnel, a mind-state, a network of relations. Definitely not something one should attack with guns...Perhaps the most useful way of looking at Babylon is to forget about Babulos Rex as anything other than a convenient metaphor. Babylon isn’t a totalitarian system forced on us from without. It’s something we do to ourselves; the immature doings of Homo Ignoramus."
- 'Authorisation Code' document from the Babylon Project Mailing List