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Wright, Frank Lloyd
Wright (rýt), Frank Lloyd
American architect whose distinctive style, based on natural forms, had a great influence on the modern movement in architecture. His designs include private homes, the Johnson Wax Company Building in Racine, Wisconsin (1939), and the Guggenheim Museum in New York City (1943-1959).
Wright, Frank Lloyd
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1867-1959), American architect, a pioneer in the modern style who is considered one of the greatest figures in 20th-century architecture. He was born in Richland Center, Wisconsin. In 1887 Wright went to Chicago, where he became a designer for the firm of Adler and Sullivan. In 1893 he established his own office in Chicago. Wright created the philosophy of "organic architecture," which maintains that a building should develop out of its natural surroundings. His designs for both private and public structures were boldly original, and he rebelled against ornate neoclassic and Victorian styles. Wright believed that architectural form must be determined by the particular function of a building, its environment, and the type of materials used. His interiors emphasize spaciousness, which derives from open planning with one room flowing into another.
Wright initiated many new techniques, such as the use of precast concrete blocks reinforced by steel rods. He also introduced numerous innovations, including air conditioning, indirect lighting, and panel heating. His works include the Millard House (1923) in Pasadena, California; the Johnson Wax Company Administration Building (1939) in Racine, Wisconsin; the First Unitarian Church (1947) in Madison, Wisconsin; and the Price Tower (1953) in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. In 1959 he completed the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City. Wright also spent much of his time writing, lecturing, and teaching. By 1908 he had originated most of the principles that serve as fundamental concepts of modern architecture. His work profoundly influenced the development of contemporary architecture in the United States and Europe.
Tokyo's Imperial Hotel, completed by Frank Lloyd Wright near the Imperial Palace with Mayan architectural features, is ornate and sprawling but soundly engineered.
Before her marriage to Frank Lloyd Wright, Olgivanna Hinzenberg studied under Georgei Gurdjieff. She is shown spinning through one of Gurdjieff's sacred dances, ritual works inspired by whirling dervishes and intended to discipline both mind and body. Olgivanna studied with Gurdjieff in France before traveling with his dance troupe to the United States, where she first met her future husband.