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spores from space... a microscopic trace...

Mushrooms

This nOde last updated October 29th, 2006 and is permanently morphing...
(8 Men (Eagle) / 8 Zak (White) - 255/260 - 12.19.13.13.15)

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mushroom

mushroom (mshrm, -rm) noun
1. Any of various fleshy fungi of the class Basidiomycota, characteristically having an umbrella-shaped cap borne on a stalk, especially any of the edible kinds, as those of the genus Agaricus.
2. Something shaped like one of these fungi.

verb, intransitive
mushroomed, mushrooming, mushrooms
1. To multiply, grow, or expand rapidly: The population mushroomed in the postwar decades.
2. To swell or spread out into a shape similar to a mushroom.

adjective
1. Relating to, consisting of, or containing mushrooms: mushroom sauce.
2. Resembling a mushroom in shape: a mushroom cloud.
3. Resembling mushrooms in rapidity of growth or evanescence: mushroom towns.
[Middle English musheron, from Anglo-Norman moscheron, musherum, from Old French mousseron, from Medieval Latin musario, musarion-.]

mushroom

mushroom, fungus characterized by spore-bearing gills on the underside of an umbrella- or cone-shaped cap. The term mushroom is properly restricted to the plant's above-ground portion, which is the reproductive organ. Once a delicacy for the elite, edible mushrooms are now grown commercially, especially strains of the meadow mushroom (Agaricus campestris). Although mushrooms contain some protein and minerals, they are largely internal linkwater and hence of limited nutritive value. Inedible, or poisonous, species are often popularly referred to as toadstools; one of the best-known poisonous mushrooms is the death angel (genus Amanita).



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the giant puffball mushroom...



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"I've mentioned that psilocin, which is what psilocybin quickly becomes as it enters your metabolism, is 4 hydroxy dimethyltryptamine.  It is the only 4-substituted indole in all of organic nature.  Let this rattle around in your mind for a moment.  It is the only 4-substituted indole known to exist on earth.  It happens to be this internal linkpsychedelic substance that occurs in about eighty species of fungi, most of which are native to the New World. internal linkPsilocybin has a unique chemical signature that says, "I am artificial;  I come from outside."  I was suggesting that it was a gene - an artificial gene - carried perhaps by a spaceborne virus or something brought artificially to this planet, and that this gene has inssinuated itself into the genome of these mushrooms."

    - internal linkTerence McKennainternal link_Archaic Revival_atomjacked inventory cache 

Terence McKenna - the force will be with you...always The Archaic Revival by Terence McKenna


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Space Tribe - Sonic Mandala Timothy Leary's finger


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604 track _Spores From Space? (A Microscopic Trace)_ MP3atomjacked inventory cache by Cosmosis off of internal link_Synergy_ 12"x2atomjacked inventory cache  on internal linkTransient 

Cosmosis - Synergy


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book _The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross_ by John M. Allegro. A dense work of etymology tracing the roots of christianity back to internal linkSumerian fertility cults, with particular internal linkfocus on the possible central position of psychedelic mushrooms in mystery rites among early christians. Valuable analysis of the sexual connotations of mushroom internal linkmorphology, and of encrypted mushroom-related internal linkinformation in the _New Testament_. Allegro was one of the original Dead Sea Scrolls scholars.



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mushroom left hand



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"As the years went on and our knowledge grew, we discovered a surprising pattern in our data: each Indo-European people is by cultural inheritance either "mycophobe" or "mycophile," that is, each people either rejects and is ignorant of the fungal world or knows it astonishingly well and loves it. Our voluminous and often amusing evidence in support of this thesis fills many sections of our new book, and it is there that we submit our case to the scholarly world. The great Russians, we find, are mighty mycophiles, as are also the Catalans, who possess a mushroomic vocabulary of more than 200 names. The ancient Greeks, internal linkCelts and Scandinavians were mycophobes, as are the Anglo-Saxons. There was another phenomenon that arrested our internal linkattention: wild mushrooms from earliest times were steeped in what the anthropologists call mana, a internal linksupernatural aura. The very word "toadstool" may have meant originally the "demonic stool" and been the specific name of a European mushroom that causes hallucinations. In ancient Greece and Rome there was a belief that certain kinds of mushrooms were procreated by the internal linklighting bolt.

Lightning, Electricity, Energy, Life

We made the further discovery that this particular myth, for which no support exists in natural science, is still believed among many widely scattered peoples: the Arabs of the desert, the peoples of India, Persia and the Pamirs, the internal linkTibetans and Chinese, the Filipinos and the internal linkMaoris of internal linkNew Zealand, and even among the Zapotecs of Mexico... All of our evidence taken together led us many years ago to hazard a bold surmise: was it not probable that, long ago, long before the beginnings of written history, our ancestors had worshiped a divine mushroom? This would explain the aura of the supernatural in which all fungi seem to be bathed. We were the first to offer the conjecture of a divine mushroom in the remote cultural background of the European peoples, and the conjecture at once posed a further problem: what kind of mushroom was once worshiped and why?

"Our surmise turned out not to be farfetched. We learned that in Siberia there are six primitive peoples--so primitive that anthropologists regard them as precious museum pieces for cultural study--who use an hallucinogenic mushroom in their shamanistic rites. We found that the Dyaks of Borneo and the Mount Hagen natives of New Guinea also have recourse to similar mushrooms. In China and internal linkJapan we came upon an ancient tradition of a divine mushroom of immortality, and in India, according to one school, the Buddha at his last supper ate a dish of mushrooms and was forthwith translated to internal linknirvana.  When Cortez conquered Mexico, his followers reported that the Aztecs were using certain mushrooms in their religious celebrations, serving them, as the early Spanish friars put it, in a demonic holy communion and calling them teonanacatl, "God's flesh." But no one at that time made a point of studying this practice in detail, and until now anthropologists have paid little attention to it. We with our interest in mushrooms seized on the Mexican opportunity, and for years have devoted the few leisure hours of our busy lives to the quest of the divine mushroom in Middle America. We think we have discovered it in certain frescoes in the Valley of Mexico that date back to about 400 A.D., and also in the "mushroom stones" carved by the highland internal linkMaya of Guatemala that go back in one or two instances to the earliest era of stone carvings, perhaps 1000 B.C. "Little by little the properties of the mushrooms are beginning to emerge. The Indians who eat them do not become addicts: when the rainy season is over and the mushrooms disappear, there seems to be no physiological craving for them. Each kind has its own hallucinogenic strength, and if enough of one species be not available, the Indians will mix the species, making a quick calculation of the right dosage. The curandero usually takes a large dose and everyone else learns to know what his own dose should be. It seems that the dose does not increase with use. Some persons require more than others. An increase in the dose intensifies the experience but does not greatly prolong the effect. The mushrooms sharpen, if anything, the internal linkmemory, while they utterly destroy the sense of internal linktime. On the night that we have described we lived through eons. When it seemed to us that a sequence of visions had lasted for years, our watches would tell us that only seconds had passed. The pupils of our eyes were dilated, the internal linkpulse of ran slow. We think the mushrooms have no cumulative effect on the human organism. Eva Mendez has been taking them for 35 years, and when they are plentiful she takes them night after night.

The mushrooms present a chemical problem. What is the agent in them that releases the strange hallucinations? We are now reasonably sure that it differs form such familiar drugs as opium, coca, mescaline, hashish, etc. But the chemist has a long road to go before he will isolate it, arrive at its molecular structure and synthesize it. The problem is of great interest in the realm of pure science. Will it also prove of help in coping with psychic disturbances? "

- Robert Gordon Wasson, banker. From an article in _Life Magazine_ (June 10, 1957)



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internal linkpsilocybin mushrooms

The most organically  prevalent--and therefore, some  would argue, most safe and  effective--internal linkpsychedelic drug.   Use of mushrooms containing  the psychoactive substance  psilocybin is thousands of years  old; modern U.S. use was popularized through ethnomycologist R. Gordon Wasson's internal link_Soma: Divine  Mushrooms of internal linkImmortality_  (1971) and through the writings of internal linkTimothy Leary, who conducted experiments with internal linkprisoners and synthetic psilocybin during the late '60s. internal linkTerence McKenna, in _Food of  the Gods_ (1992), argues that mushrooms possibly represent the infiltration of an internal linkalien intelligence on earth and may even have been responsible for humankind's acquisition of internal linklanguage.  The long-acting tryptamines in Stropharia cubensis, the most  common street mushroom (besides the dealer-doctored  store-bought variety), are usually taken in doses of from one to five grams and give a visually complex five-to-seven-hour high similar to internal linkLSD.
 

a nice patch of mushrooms...



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604 release _Holy Mushroom_ compilation CDx2 on High Society (1997)
 

Holy Mushroom
 CD 1 CD 2

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604 release internal link_Danceinternal linkTranceinternal linkMagic Plants: Otherworld_ compilation 12"x2atomjacked inventory cache on internal linkTransient (1997)
 

Dance, Trance, and Magic Plants


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internal link604 release _The Gathering_ 12"x3atomjacked inventory cache by Infected Mushroom on BNE/Yo Yo/Balloonia/Cosmophilia (1999)



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604 release _Classical Mushroom_ CDbatomjacked inventory cache by Infected Mushroom (2000)

Infected Mushroom - Classical Mushroom


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604 release _B.P. Empire_ CD by Infected Mushroom on Yoyo (internal link2001)



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Infected Mushroom
Trance De Eivissa: The Hidden Outdoor Party Sound

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Smile - Amanita/Staring At The Sun 7inch on Nemesis Smile - Staring At The Sun - insert depiction - Aztec calendar
Waldeck- Balance Of The Force on E-Magine Entertainment (1999) Spoon Wizard - Believe Or Suffer on Functional (2002)
Dead Can Dance - Aion on 4AD (1990) Orange Alabaster Mushroom - Space And Time on Hidden Agenda (2001)
Susumu Yokota - 1998 12inch x2 on Sublime (1998) Slum - Twilight Mushrooms 7inch on Warp (1999)
Mushroom Jazz 3 MixCD by Mark Farina on Om (2001)
Guided By Voices - Do That Collapse on TVT (1999) Adam Beyer - Ignition Key 12inch x2 on Truesoul (2002) Ex-Girl - Kero! Kero! Kero! on Compozilla (1999) Mushroom - Analog Hi-Fi Surprise on Clearspot (1999)
Spiritual Beggars - Mantra III (1998) John Cage cultivating mushrooms Move D And Pete Namlook - Exploring The Psychedelic Landscape on FAX (1996) Himuro - Nichiyobi on Worm Interface #014 (1998)

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The term mushroom refers to the above ground fruiting body (that is spore-producing structure) of a fungus, having a shaft and a cap; and in extension, refers to the entire fungus producing the fruiting body of such appearance, the former consisting of an extensive internal linknetwork (called the internal linkmycelium) of filaments or hyphae. In a very broader sense, mushroom is applied to any visible fungus, or especially the fruiting body of any fungus. The technical term for the spore-producing structure of "internal linktrue" mushrooms is the basidiocarp.

Types of mushrooms

The main types of mushrooms are agarics, boletes, chanterelles, tooth fungi, polypores, puffballs, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi, stinkhorns, and cup fungi. Mushrooms and other fungi are studied by mycologists. The "true" mushrooms are classified as Basidiomycota (also known as "club fungi"). A few mushrooms are classified by mycologists as Ascomycota (the "cup fungi"), the morel and truffle being good examples. Thus, the term mushroom is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodiers than one having precise taxonomic meaning.

Mushrooms are used extensively in cooking many cuisines. However, a number of species of mushrooms are poisonous, and these may resemble edible varieties, although eating them could be fatal. Picking mushrooms in the wild is extremely risky far riskier than gathering edible plants and a practice not to be undertaken by internal linkamateurs. This riskiness is due to the fact that separating edible from poisonous species is dependent upon the application of only a few easily recognizable traits. People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mushroom hunters, and the act of collecting them as such is called mushroom hunting an activity with a potentially deadly outcome that one should be well prepared for before attempting.

Mushroom structure

Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. A "typical" mushroom consists of a cap or pileus supported on a stem or stipe. Both can have a variety of shapes and be ornamented in various ways. The underside of the cap (in agarics) is fitted with gills or lamellae where the actual spores are produced. How the gills are attached is another important characteristic used in identification. In the boletes, the gills are replaced by small openings called pores. Bracket fungi essentially lack a stipe, and the cap is attached like a bracket to the substratum, usually a log ot tree trunk. Some bracket fungi have gills, others have pores.

In general, identification to genus can be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. Identification to species requires more work. Realize that a mushroom develops from a young bud into a mature structure and only the latter can provide certain identification of the species. Examination of mature spores, or at least knowing their color, is often essential. And to this end, a common method used to assist in identification is the spore print.

Chemical properties

Of central interest with respect to chemical properties of mushrooms is the fact that many species produce secondary metabolites that render them toxic, internal linkhallucinogenic, or even bioluminescent. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. One internal linkdefense against consumption and premature destruction is the internal linkevolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to regurgitate the meal or avoid consumption altogether.

Currently, many species of mushrooms and fungi utilized as folk medicines for thousands of years are under internal linkintense study by ethnobotanists and medical researchers. Maitake, internal linkShiitake, and Reishi are prominent among those being researched for their anti-cancer, anti-viral, and/or immunity-enhancement properties.

Psilocybin mushrooms possess hallucinogenic properties and are commonly known as "'shrooms". A number of other mushrooms are eaten for their psychoactive effects, such as internal linkFly Agaric.



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internal linkUsenet: alt.drugs.mushrooms


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pOrtal:
external linkMAPSMultidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies
external linkLycaeum

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