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1. A city of southwest Maine on an arm of the Gulf of Maine south of Lewiston. Settled c. 1632, it became a commercial center in the 17th century and was state capital from 1820 to 1832. It is the largest city in the state. Population, 64,348.
2. The largest city of Oregon, in the northwest part of the state on the Willamette River near its junction with the Columbia River. Founded in 1845, it grew as a lumber-exporting port and supply point for the California and Alaska goldfields. Population, 437,319.
- Port´lander noun
Portland. 1 City (1990 pop. 64,358), seat of Cumberland co., SW Maine, on Casco Bay and including five islands in the bay; settled c.1632, inc. 1786. Maine's largest city and commercial center, it has a deepwater harbor, and imports oil and other goods destined for Montreal. It is the shipping and processing point for a vast farming, lumbering, and resort area, and has shipyards, canneries, and foundries. Portland was state capital from 1820 to 1832. The LONGFELLOW house and Portland Head Lighthouse (est. 1791) are noteworthy. 2 City (1990 pop. 437,319; met. area 1,239,842), seat of Multnomah co., NW Oreg., on the Willamette R.; inc. 1851. Founded in 1845, it grew rapidly as a supply point for western gold fields. The largest city in Oregon and the leading exporting port on the West Coast, it manufactures paper and wood products, electronic instruments, and machinery. The city grew rapidly after 1850, serving as a supply point for the California and Alaska gold fields. Its varied architecture includes a neoclassical city hall and the postmodernist Portland Building designed by Michael Graves. The Univ. of Portland, Reed College, and museums of art, science and advertising are among the many institutions in the area. The region is noted for its dramatic scenery; Mt. Hood is nearby.
Portland is the largest city in Oregon, a few dozen miles from the west coast of the United States. It is situated just south of where the Willamette River flows into the Columbia River. In July 2002, the city's population was estimated to be 538,180, a growth of 1.7% over the April 2000 census figure of 529,121.
Portland is in Multnomah County. The metropolitan area, consisting of five counties in Oregon (Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas, Columbia, and Yamhill) and Clark County in Washington had a population of 1,979,650 as of July 2002. This is 3.3% more than the 2000 census figure for the area. The area includes the neighboring cities of Beaverton, Gresham, Hillsboro, Milwaukie, Lake Oswego, Oregon City, and Tigard (all in Oregon), as well as Vancouver (in Washington).
Portland has a well-deserved reputation for its vibrant and livable downtown. Many credit this to Oregon's proactive land use policies, which introduced an urban growth boundary in 1974. The boundary preserved agricultural land and reduced sprawl. This was atypical in an era when automobile use led many areas to neglect their core cities in favor of development along interstate highways, in suburbs, and satellite cities.
Also unlike many other U.S. cities, it spreads its share of federal tax dollars into multiple modes of transportation, not just highways.
The city is nicknamed The City of Roses; it has an annual Rose Festival each spring, an International Rose Test Garden, and a downtown arena called the Rose Garden.
Other nicknames include:
* City of Bridges, or Bridgetown, due to its numerous
* PDX, from the airport code of its airport;
* Puddletown, because of its weather;
* Rip City, a nickname stemming from a chance remark from a long-time announcer for the Trail Blazers;
* River City, because of its location;
* Little Beirut, for the hostile demonstrations in response to the visits of president George H. W. Bush and his unelected son George W. Bush;
* Deportland, from the alleged rough treatment of passengers at the Federal Inspection Service facility back when Delta Air Lines operated flights to Asia from PDX.
One of Portland's oldest nicknames, Stumptown, comes from an early period of phenomenal growth. In the years after 1847, the city grew so rapidly that the stumps of trees cut down to make way for roads were left until manpower could be spared to remove them. In some areas, the stumps remained for so long that locals painted them white to make them more visible, and used them to cross the street without sinking into the mud.
Portland began in 1843, when William Overton and Asa Lovejoy beached their canoe on the banks of the Willamette River. Overcome by the beauty of the area, Overton saw great potential for this mountain-ringed, timber-rich land. His only problem was that he lacked the quarter needed to file a land claim. So, he struck a bargain with Lovejoy: for 25¢, Overton would share his claim to the 640-acre site known as "The Clearing."
Bored with clearing trees and building roads, Overton sold his half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove. Pettygrove and Lovejoy disagreed over what to call their new town, each wanting to name it after his home town; they settled the argument with a coin toss. Pettygrove won, and named the new town after his hometown in Maine; had Lovejoy won, he intended to name it after his hometown of Boston, Massachusetts.
In its early years, Portland existed in the shadow of Oregon City, the territorial capital twelve miles upstream on the falls of the Willamette. Nevertheless, by 1850 Portland had approximately 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log-cabin hotel, and a newspaper, called the Weekly Oregonian.
Portland was the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s when direct railroad access between the deep water harbor in Seattle and points east by way of Stampede Pass were built. Goods could then be transported from the northwest coast to inland cities without needing to navigate the dangerous bar at the mouth of the Columbia.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 376.5 km² (145.4 mi²). 347.9 km² (134.3 mi²) of it is land and 28.6 km² (11.1 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 7.6% water.
As a result of a "great renumbering" in the 1930s, Portland is divided into five sections. Burnside Street bisects it into northern and southern halves. Below Burnside are the Southwest and Southeast sections, divided by the Willamette River. Above it, are Northwest, North, and Northeast sections; a separate North section is due to a bend in the Willamette which splits what would otherwise be a northwest quadrant into North Portland and Northwest sections of town. Locals refer to these areas by their section names (such as "Northwest"), with the exception of "North Portland", for which the full name is always used. The more densely populated parts of the city proper are somewhat asymmetrical, with the west side hemmed in by the West Hills, while the flatter east side stretches on for more than 150 blocks, until it meets Gresham.
* Northwest includes the Pearl District, a fairly recent
name for what originally was an old warehouse area. Since the late 1980s,
many of the existing warehouses have been converted into lofts, and new multi-story
condominiums have also been developed. The increasing density has attracted
an urban mix of restaurants, brewpubs, shops, and art galleries, though in some
cases pioneering tenants have been priced out of the area. The galleries sponsor
receptions for their artists on the first Thursday of every month. Further west
is the toney NW 23rd
neighborhood and shopping area. Portland's Old Chinatown neighborhood is marked
by a pair of lions at the corner of NW 4th and Burnside, and includes the district
along the Willamette River between Burnside and Union Station.
* Southwest includes Pioneer Courthouse Square (downtown's "living room"), various suburban neighborhoods including the expensive West Hills (mentioned in a 1997 Everclear song), the campuses of Portland State University, OHSU, and Lewis and Clark College, and the south riverfront along Macadam Boulevard and the Willamette.
* Northeast is largely working-class neighborhoods which are more diverse racially than Portland as a whole. Inner northeast includes several shopping districts such as the Lloyd and Hollywood Districts. The Rose Garden is located here.
* North Portland, another working-class area, contains the St. John's neighborhood which has an old-fashioned and slightly run-down feeling, adjacent to the beautiful St. John's Bridge. During World War II, a planned development named Vanport, was constructed to the north of this section between the city limits and the Columbia River, and grew to be the second largest city in Oregon; Vanport was wiped out by a disastrous flood in 1948. The area includes a new light-rail line, along Interstate Avenue, due to be completed in Spring of 2004. It is also home to the University of Portland.
* Southeast stretches from the warehouses by the river, through the expensive Ladd's Addition, to hippie/Generation X Hawthorne and Belmont districts, to poorer neighborhoods beyond 82nd Avenue. Farther south, the Sellwood neighborhood and wealthy areas near Reed College are close to the Willamette, with Clackamas Town Center acting as a hub for business further east, where I-205 splits the region.
The metropolitan area includes twelve road bridges which span the Willamette River, and two others spanning the Columbia:
* six city street bridges across the Willamette, all
but one dating to the early 20th century: Broadway, Steel, Burnside, Morrison,
Hawthorne, and Ross Island;
* two interstate highway bridges over the Willamette, Fremont (dating to 1973) and Marquam (1966);
* two old bridges cross the Willamette just north (St. John's) and south (Sellwood) of city center;
* the Oregon City, is south of Sellwood and crosses the Willamette near downtown Oregon City;
* I-205 crosses the Willamette near Oregon City (the Abernethy) and the Columbia (Glenn Jackson) over Government Island;
* I-5 crosses the Columbia (the Interstate) into Washington.
Portland is well-known for its comprehensive public transportation system. The major bus and rail system is named TriMet, reflecting the three metropolitan counties it serves (Multnomah, Clackamas, and Washington).
A bus mall dominates 5th and 6th Avenues downtown. Almost all TriMet buses route through the mall, with bus stops grouped geographically by destination. This approach gives riders who miss a bus to have additional options for reaching their destination. Since the mall acts as a metro-area-wide hub, it also means riders can often get downtown without changing buses and reach most other destinations with only one change.
The light rail, or MAX consists of two lines, with a third opening in 2004:
* The main line is 33 miles long, and goes from Hillsboro,
a western suburb, through Beaverton and downtown, across the Willamette River
to the eastern-most suburban city of Gresham.
* A five-mile north-south extension connects the main line with the airport.
* The newest route, almost six miles long and under construction until 2004, is a more central north-south one, connecting North Portland's Expo Center with downtown.
In addition, the Portland Streetcar began operation in 2001, with a five-mile loop from downtown's Portland State University, past Powell's City of Books, through the Pearl District, to the NW 23rd neighborhood.
Most of the downtown area is a "Fareless Square" where buses and MAX trains are free as long as you are travelling between two points within the square. The Fareless Square is bounded by the Willamette to the east, Irving Street to the north, and I-405 to the west and south.
A more unusual form of public transportation, an aerial tramway, is planned to connect the South riverfront area with Marquam Hill (also known as "Pill Hill"), the location of Oregon Health and Science University. This plan encountered significant opposition from the citizens living underneath its planned route, though resulting changes in design have addressed the most serious concerns.
Portland has earned more than one "most bicycle friendly city" award. An important hallmark for bicycle-friendly infrastructure was the expansion of the sidewalks of Hawthorne Bridge in 1997. While there were many other bicycle-friendly projects (such as the blue bike lanes project, and the Esplanade Riverfront Park), this one alone seemed to immediately help increase the number of daily bicycle commuters. A current project will bring bike "oasis" to the popular southeast Hawthorne Boulevard shopping district--architecturally distinctive, covered bicycle parking.
The Bicycle Transportation Alliance is a local bicycle advocacy group.
Forest Park is one of the world's largest parks contained within a city, at about 20 km2 (7.7 mi2), or 5000 acres. Portland is also home to Mill Ends Park, one of the smallest parks anywhere (being a two-foot diameter circle, its "acreage" is only about 0.3 square metres).
Perhaps the most famous park is Gov. Tom McCall Waterfront Park, which runs along west bank of the Willamette for the length of downtown. The 37-acre park was built in 1974 after a freeway was removed. Today it plays host to large events throughout the year, including several beer festivals, a series of blues concerts, and the Rose Festival carnival.
The only state park in the area is Tryon Creek State Park; its creek still has a run of steelhead trout.Professional sports
* Portland Trail Blazers, NBA Basketball
* Portland Beavers, Minor league baseball
* Portland Winterhawks, Junior league hockey
* Portland Timbers, A League Soccer
* Pioneer Courthouse Square
* Portland Rose Garden
* Japanese Garden
* Portland Classical Chinese Garden
* The Grotto
* Oregon Zoo
* Oaks Amusement Park
* Northwest Film Center
* Oregon Historical Society
* Pittock Mansion
* Portland Art Museum
* Portland Institute for Contemporary Art (PICA)
* Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI)
* The American Advertising Museum
* The Bathtub Art Museum
* Portland Saturday Market
* Powell's City of Books
* Burgerville, USA
Colleges and universities
* Concordia University
* Lewis and Clark College
* National College of Naturopathic Medicine
* Oregon Health and Science University (formerly Oregon Health Sciences University)
* Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology (now part of Oregon Health and Science University)
* Pacific Northwest College of Art
* Portland State University
* Portland Community College
* Reed College
* University of Portland
* Warner Pacific College
* James Beard, food expert
* Mel Blanc, cartoon voice actor (What's up Doc?)
* John Callahan, perversely controversial cartoonist
* Clive Charles, soccer coach
* Beverly Cleary, children's author
* Joseph Buford Cox, inventor of the Cox Chipper Chain, which made chainsaws practical
* Abigail Scott Duniway, radical, suffragist, and publisher/editor of Portland newspaper The New Northwest
* Douglas Engelbart, inventor of the computer mouse
* Stanley Fafara, child actor
* Dick Fosbury, high jumper
* The Kingsmen, musicians (_Louie Louie_ MP3)
* Robert Lee Ghormley, World War II naval officer
* Matt Groening, The Simpsons cartoonist
* Lou Harrison, composer
* Stewart Holbrook, author and artist
* Ursula K. Le Guin, science fiction/fantasy author
* Philip Margolin, writer and lawyer
* Mike and Brian McMenamin, brewpub owners
* Tiffeny Milbrett, soccer player
* Chuck Palahniuk, writer, who has written an idiosyncratic guide to and memoir of the city, Fugitives and Refugees: A Walk in Portland, Oregon (ISBN 1400047838)
* Linus Pauling, Nobel Prize-winning chemist
* Henry F. Phillips, inventor of the Phillips-head screw
* Jane Powell, actress
* Johnnie Ray, musician
* John Reed, journalist
* Mark Rothko, artist
* Rebecca Schaeffer, actress, whose murder in 1989 led to anti-stalking laws
* Sleater-Kinney, musicians
* Elliott Smith, folk singer
* William Stafford, poet
* Sally Struthers, actress born and raised in Portland
* Toyes, musicians (reggae band _Smoke Two Joints_ MP3)
* Zoe Trope, teenage author
* Gus Van Sant, filmmaker
* Will Vinton, claymation animator
* Lindsay Wagner, the Bionic Woman
As of the census of 2000, there are 529,121 people residing in the city, organized into 223,737 households and 118,356 families. The population density is 1,521/km² (3,939.2/mi²). There are 237,307 housing units at an average density of 682.1/km² (1,766.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 77.91% White, 6.64% African American, 1.06% Native American, 6.33% Asian, 0.38% Pacific Islander, 3.55% from other races, and 4.15% from two or more races. 6.81% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 223,737 households out of which 24.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% are married couples living together, 10.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% are non-families. 34.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 9% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.3 and the average family size is 3.
In the city the population is spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 34.7% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there are 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 95.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $40,146, and the median income for a family is $50,271. Males have a median income of $35,279 versus $29,344 for females. The per capita income for the city is $22,643. 13.1% of the population and 8.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 15.7% are under the age of 18 and 10.4% are 65 or older.
Portland in film
Portland has been the setting or background for a number of films, including the following:
* Body of Evidence
* Drugstore Cowboy
* Five Easy Pieces
* Mr. Holland's Opus
* My Own Private Idaho
* The Hunted
* Men of Honor
* Zero Effect
* Sapporo, Japan, since 1959
* Guadalajara, Mexico, since 1983
* Corinto, Nicaragua, since 1985
* Ashkelon, Israel, since 1987
* Ulsan, South Korea, since 1987
* Suzhou, China, since 1988
* Khabarovsk, Russia, since 1988
* Kaohsiung, Taiwan, since 1988
* Mutare, Zimbabwe, since 1991
* Bologna, Italy, since 2003