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William Shakespeare
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Shakespeare, William

Shakespeare (shâk´spîr), William
English playwright and poet whose body of works is considered the greatest in English literature. His plays, many of which were performed at the Globe Theatre in London, include historical works, such as Richard II, comedies, including Much Ado about Nothing and As You Like It, and tragedies, such as Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear. He also composed 154 sonnets. The earliest collected edition of his plays, the First Folio, contained 36 plays and was published posthumously (1623).
- Shakespear´ean or Shakespear´ian adjective & noun

Shakespeare, William

Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616, English dramatist and poet, considered the greatest of all playwrights; b. Stratford-upon-Avon. He was the son of a Stratford businessman and probably attended the local grammar school, acquiring a grounding in the classics. In 1582 he married Anne Hathaway. They had three children. Little else is known of his life before 1592, when he appeared as a playwright in London. He may have been a member of a traveling theater group, and some evidence in his early style suggests he may have been a schoolmaster. In 1594 he became an actor and playwright for the Lord Chamberlain's Men (the King's Men under James I). It is thought that he played supporting roles, e.g., the Ghost in Hamlet. In 1599 he became a part owner of the Globe Theatre, and in 1608 of the Blackfriars Theatre. He retired to Stratford in 1613.

Shakespeare, William (The Plays)
The chronology of the plays is internal linkuncertain, but style and content analysis give a reasonable approximation of their order. They fall roughly into three periods. In the first are history plays, beginning with the three parts of Henry VI, and comedies. At this stage Shakespeare's historical tragedies (Titus Andronicus) lack depth of characterization and are somewhat bombastic. The comedies are essentially classical imitations, with strong elements of FARCE (The Comedy of Errors). The last play in this first period, Romeo and Juliet (c.1594), evidences Shakespeare's maturing talent. The versification is more complex, and rhythms reflect the speaker's state of mind, a technique he developed with increasing subtlety. In the second period, from Richard II (c.1595) through Twelfth Night (c.1599), Shakespeare produced histories and tragedies in which characterization and practical elements are successfully blended. In the COMEDIES of this period he moved away from farce toward idyllic ROMANCE (As You Like It). The third period, from 1600, saw the appearance of Shakespeare's major TRAGEDIES, beginning with Hamlet, and "problem plays." The tragedies, after Othello, present clear oppositions of order to internal linkchaosHail Eris!, and good to evil, on all levels. The style becomes increasingly compressed and symbolic. Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, and The internal linkTempest are tragicomedies, with full tragic potential but a harmonious resolution through grace, a term with divine as well as artistic implications. Shakespeare has been criticized for failing to propound a philosophy, but the enduring appeal of his plays lies in his human vision, which recognizes the complexity of moral questions, and in the unparalleled richness of his internal linklanguage.
Shakespeare, William (Sources and Editions)

Eighteen of the plays appeared in print during Shakespeare's life, but the source for all except Pericles and Two Noble Kinsmen (of dubious authorship) is the First Folio of 1623. The plays were first published with act and scene divisions and stage directions by Nicholas ROWE (1709). Two major sources used by Shakespeare were Raphael HOLINSHED's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1577) for the English historical plays, and Sir Thomas North's translation (1579) of PLUTARCH's Lives. He altered many other source materials to suit his purposes.

Shakespeare, William (The Poetry)
Shakespeare would be well known for his poetry alone. His first published works were the narratives Venus and Adonis (1593) and The Rape of Lucrece (1594). The love poem The Phoenix and the Turtle appeared in 1601. But his major achievement is the Sonnets (1609, written in the 1590s). In them Shakespeare exercises his talent for compressing meaning, fully realized in his later work. Addressed (numbers 1-126) to the unidentified "W.H." and (numbers 127-152) to the mysterious "dark lady," the SONNETS treat the themes of time, mutability, and death, and their transcendence through love and art.

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the internal linkFrancis Bacon connection

"...life expectancy in Shakespeare's day was about 30 years.  (That's why Shakespeare wrote of himself so often as aging and declining in sonnets written when he was only in his early 30s.)  In England, 100 years ago, life expectancy was still less than 40 years among members of the working class.  It was 60 around the turn of the century of this country.  It is now 72.  Even if Bjorksten, Segall, Phedra, and the hundreds of other longevity researchers are overly optimistic, even if we can raise lifespan only 50 per cent in this generation, that still means that you will probably live at least 30 years past the projected 72."
internal linkRobert Anton Wilson - _The internal linkIlluminati Papers_atomjacked inventory cache  (internal link1980) 

Robert Anton Wilson's pyramid The Illuminati Papers by Robert Anton Wilson

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LONDON (AFP) - - Scientists believe they may have discovered the source of William Shakespeare's genius -- smoking cannabis.

Researchers are investigating whether the secret of the Bard's creativity was his dope-smoking, according to the Independent on Sunday newspaper.

Pipes found at Shakespeare's home in Stratford-upon-Avon, central England, are being tested for traces of the drug, the paper said.

Dr Frances Thackeray, head of palaeontology at the Transvaal Museum in Pretoria, South Africa, believes there is evidence of Shakespeare's drug habit in his work, the paper said.

Thackeray points to the Bard's use of complex imagery of darkness and mental journeys as evidence of drug-induced visions, according to the Independent.

In a paper written for the Shakespearean Society of Southern Africa, he said: "There are very few literary scholars who have recognised the potential link between Shakespeare and internal linkhallucinogenic stimuli.

"A close reading of his sonnets and some other lines suggests that he was aware of them and may have experienced the effects himself."

He added: "This project has Stratford agog."

Thackeray and a colleague, Professor Nick van der Merwe, have asked Pretoria police laboratories to analyse the contents of several clay pipes retrieved from New Place in Stratford-upon-Avon, where Shakespeare lived until his death in 1616.

Cannabis was first cultivated in England in 400 AD and in the 16th and 17th centuries was commonly used to produce hemp for ships' ropes and canvas.

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"Passion, I see, is catching..."
Shakespeare, _Julius Caesar_

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film internal link_Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace_ (vhs/ntsc)atomjacked inventory cache

Like a Shakespearean play, this film's final dialogue is a rhyming couplet:

"Always two there are, no more, no less: a master and an apprentice."

"But which was destroyed? The master or the apprentice?" 

the Imperial Starfleet

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Most artists, if pressed, will admit that the true mother of invention in the arts is not necessity, but theft. And this is true even for our greatest artists. Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (1591) was taken from Arthur Brooke's poem _Romeus and Juliet_ (1562), and most of Shakespeare's historical plays would have infringed  Holingshead's _Chronicles of England_ (1573). For the third movement of the overture to Theodora, Handel drew on a harpsichord piece by Gottlieb Muffat (1690-1770).

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internal linkTwilight Zone episodes
The Twilight Zone

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I asked the spirits to show me Shakespeare. They said, "okay" (they are not always so accomodating). He was a internal linkmagical being of great size and power, made of energy. There were a million spirits in the form of fizzy colored internal linklights internal linkdancing around him, like tiny internal linkJapanese lanterns or candleflames, helping him as he wrote, his pen scrawling across the internal linkquantum Void. James Joyce was there as well - he was like a little pendant resting on Shakespeare's desk. I recognized that part of the artist's spirit went directly into their creations. Their spiritual power depended on the earthbound public's continued desire for their work. That is the deeper meaning of the artist's internal linkquest for internal linkimmortality.

- Daniel Pinchback - _Breaking Open The Head_ (online version)

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Ran directed by Akira Kurosawa Dienzephalon CD on Global Trance Network/Liquid Audio (2001)
Rush - Moving Pictures 12 (1980) Coil - The Angelic Conversation

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internal linkUsenet: humanities.lit.authors.shakespeare
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